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What is Osteoarthritis?

Arthritis is very common but is not well understood. Actually, “arthritis” is not a single disease; it is an informal way of referring to joint pain or joint disease. Common arthritis joint symptoms include swelling, pain, stiffness and decreased range of motion. Severe arthritis can result in chronic pain, inability to do daily activities and make it difficult to walk or climb stairs. Arthritis can cause permanent joint changes. These changes may be visible, such as knobby finger joints, but often the damage can only be seen on X-ray.

Joint of predilection

Terminal inter-phalange joints:-

Cervical & Lumber vertebra


“US estimates show there are 20 million people with arthritis.
A number projected to grow to 40 million by 2020.”

“Estimates that do exist for Asia’s arthritis victims 150 Million in India At least 65 Million in China 10 million in Japan.”

Types of Osteoarthritis

1) Knee Osteoarthritis

Knee Arthritis also known as Knee osteoarthritis is a degenerative knee condition where the articular cartilage of your knee joint gradually wears away, exposing the underlying bone.

As your knee arthritis progresses, bony spurs also develop in and around your knee joint in response to the change in load distribution and biomechanics.

Within your knee, there are two joints which can be affected by knee arthritis: the tibiofemoral joint - the joint between your thigh bone (femur) and your lower leg (tibia) and the patellofemoral joint (the joint between the kneecap and the femur itself).

2) Hip Osteoarthritis

Hip Arthritis commonly describes the most common for of hip arthritis, which is known medically as Hip Osteoarthritis.

Hip osteoarthritis is a joint disease that mostly affects your hip joint cartilage. Articular cartilage is the hard slippery surface that covers the sections of bones that move against each other in your hip joint.

Healthy articular cartilage allows your hip joint bones to smoothly and painlessly glide over each other and also helps to absorb any shock forces not dispersed by your hip muscles.

Which age group is affected?

Osteoarthritis usually starts from the late 40s onwards. This may be due to bodily changes that come with ageing, such as weakening muscles, weight gain, and the body becoming less able to heal itself effectively

Risks Factor and Causes of Osteoarthritis ?

Risk factors you cannot change

Family history of disease

Increasing age

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Risk Factor You can change

Overuse of the joint

Major injury


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What are the clinical features of osteoarthritis ?

Clinical Features

Low grade aching pain
Stiffness after rest


On Examination

Motion is painful and limited

Creaking and grating sensation of movement

Joint is enlarged

How to diagnose Osteoarthritis?

It’s important to get an accurate diagnosis if you think you have arthritis, as different types of arthritis often need very different treatments. The diagnosis of osteoarthritis is usually based on:

Your symptoms – how and when they started, how they’ve developed, how they affect your life, and any factors that make them better or worse

A) physical examination – your doctor will check for:

a) Tenderness over the joint

b) Creaking or grating of the joint – known as crepitus

c) Bony swelling

d) Excess fluid

e) Restricted movement

f) Joint instability

g) Weakness or thinning of the muscles that support the joint.

B) Standing knee x-ray and patella x-ray


Management of Osteoarthritis?

Preventive Management

Avoid over use of the joint

Avoid injury to knee

Walking, swimming, aquatic exercises and cycling are good for knees

Nutritional diet and milk and milk product are help full for the strength of bones and joints

Medicines Management

Conventional medicine (IBUPROFEN, DICLOFENAC, INDOMETHACIN etc.)

Cartilage Nourishing Agents

Intra Articular Injections

Non Surgical Management

Knee braces

Quadriceps strengthening exercises

Surgical Management

Role of Arthroscopy

Role of Osteotomy

Role of Total Knee Replacement